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The Yanukovichization of Belarus

By Dr. Miklos K. RadvanyiFrontiers of Freedom

In Ecclesiastes 1:4-11, the author muses over the eternal cycles of human existence.  Among the many examples that he brings up, the most compelling one states the following:  “What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done, and there is nothing new under the sun.”  

To illustrate the sagacity of this insight, it should suffice to examine the history of minority rules.  From times immemorial, all forms of minority rules have been based on mutual fears.  Majorities have been afraid of their kings, emperors, dictators, and despots.  In turn, the rulers have feared the people, because their reign has been based on oppression and not the consent of the governed.  Ultimately, these cycles of mutual fears have always grown exponentially until they have led to violent and all consuming political explosions.    

Belarus (in Russian:  Belorussia), ruled with an iron fist since July 20,1994, by President Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Lukashenka (in Russian: Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko), is no exception.  Prior to being engaged in politics, President Lukashenka was the director of a Soviet-style collective farm, called kolkhoz.  Before this job, he became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and a uniformed guard of the Soviet Border Troops.  Having been appointed as a deputy to the Supreme Council of Belarus, he earned the dubious distinction of having cast the only vote against the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Having been labeled “Europe’s last dictatorship,” President Lukashenka has steadfastly prevented Belarus to even begin its transformation as a sovereign state from a Soviet-style dictatorship to a more Westernized pluralistic country.  However, like Stalin’s constitution of 1936, the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus of 1994, are modelled in its language after the Western constitutions and at least formally entails all the institutional as well as the personal guarantees, rights and freedoms of a normal, pluralistic state.  Accordingly, Section One solemnly declares that the government of the Republic of Belorus belongs to the people.  The government is defined as a multi-party representative democracy.  While the government guarantees the protection of rights and freedoms of all citizens, Section One also states that the individual citizen “bears a responsibility towards the State to discharge unwaveringly the duties imposed upon him by the Constitution.”

During Lukashenka’s reign, there were three crucial Amendments to the constitution.  All Amendments were designed to significantly enhance the powers of the presidency.  Approved by a fraudulent national referendum in May 1995 by a majority of 77%, the First Amendment authorized the President to unilaterally disband the Parliament.  

The Second Amendment, unilaterally initiated by President Lukashenka, further strengthened his powers.  The unicameral parliament, fittingly named the Supreme Soviet, was simply abolished.  It was replaced by the National Assembly, a bicameral parliament. Demonstrating President Lukashenka’s increasing arrogance and megalomania, this Amendment was allegedly approved by 84% of the electorate.  As a result, all opposition parties were excluded from the new parliament.  To wit, due to the lack of transparency as well as ballot stuffing, the United States of America, the European Union, and many other states refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of either Amendment.

Finally, the Third Amendment abolished the presidential term limits in its entirety in 2004.  Again, approved by a national referendum, 77.3% of the people consented to President Lukashenka’s demand to serve in the highest office for life.  As with the 1996 referendum, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) called the legitimacy of this referendum into question.  The organization bluntly declared that the referendum did not meet the requirements of “free and fair elections.”  To add a final political insult to the death of legality, the Minister of Justice of Belorus and almost all the legal scholars in the country came up with a completely novel interpretation of the rule of law.  In their opinion, laws are constitutional if they follow the will of President Lukashenka and the people.  Those laws that do not fall into this category are non-existent and shall be ignored.  As a result, the Constitution and most of the legal provisions are in contradiction.       

 Similarly, the economy of Belarus, which is the world’s 72nd largest, is almost totally controlled by the state.  Dubbing his economic policies “Market Socialism,” he reintroduced in 1994 a purely Socialist economy in Belorus.  Politically motivated Russian oil and gas deliveries have rendered Belorus completely energy dependent on the Kremlin.  President Lukashenka’s feeble attempts to flirt with the West only made him another East European political prostitute of the region.

The most recent Soviet-style presidential election, held on August 9, 2020, delivered the expected result.  Proving that in an orderly dictatorship there are no miracles,  President Lukashenka beat the stand-in candidate of the opposition for her jailed husband Sergey Tsikhnousky, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya by 80.10% to 10.12%.  The opposition cried foul, while President Lukashenka declared that “You speak about unfair elections and want fair ones?  I have an answer for you.  We had the elections.  Unless you kill me, there will be no other elections.”  The ensuing protests have been answered with brutal and ruthless crackdown.  Calling the protesters “bands of criminals” and “rats,” President Lukashenka has pleaded with Russian President Putin to come to his rescue immediately.  Meanwhile, thousands have been detained and at least two persons have died.  More importantly, however, President for life Lukashenka has proved again that the mentality of the Soviet Union is well alive and kicking strongly in the eastern part of the continent.

His soulmate in governance, Russian President Vladimir Putin has been strangely silent throughout President Lukashenka’s ordeal.  Clearly, he must have learned something from the events that surrounded former Ukrainian President Yanukovich’s dismal performance at the end of 2013 and the beginning of 2014 in Kyiv and across Ukraine.  President Putin’s restraint might have also been motivated by the potential threat of additional sanctions against his country.  Be that as it may, Russia would only save President Lukashenka’s hide if Belorus would move decisively into the orbit of the European Union and NATO.  Otherwise, a relaxation or even the demise of President Lukashenka’s severe dictatorship would not rattle the Kremlin.  

Yet, the people of Belarus deserve the sympathy and support of the rest of the world.  Russia’s eventual intervention should not discourage the United States of America and the European Union to provide political and any other support for the people who have unequivocally expressed their desire to finally live free in a democracy.  Clearly, President Lukashenka’s days are numbers.  Politically, he is done and not even Russia could save his dictatorship.  In the Kremlin, President Putin and his colleagues must finally comprehend that the days of dictators in Europe are coming to an end.  In case they would resist, their countries would become not only the graveyards of failed ideas, but also the economic catastrophes of the rest of the world.


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